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عالم الطاقة المتجددة | المنزل الجديد: نموذج لتوفير الطاقة
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المنزل الجديد: نموذج لتوفير الطاقة

هناك طرق عديدة لجعل المباني الجديدة موفرة للطاقة. مثلاً يمكن إضافة مادة عازلة للجدران الخارجية والأسقف والعليات والأقبية وحول أنابيب التدفئة والتبريد وفي الأرضيات الهيكلية. كما يساعد وضع الأغطية ومعيّرات الهواء على فتحات التهوية في المناطق الخارجية أو غير المدفأة أو المبردة (مثل مراوح العوادم ومداخل العلية) على توفير الطاقة. كما تزيد النوافذ والأبواب والأجهزة الموفرة للطاقة من كفاءة استخدام الطاقة. هناك طرق عديدة لجعل المباني الجديدة موفرة للطاقة. مثلاً يمكن إضافة مادة عازلة للجدران الخارجية والأسقف والعليات والأقبية وحول أنابيب التدفئة والتبريد وفي الأرضيات الهيكلية. كما يساعد وضع الأغطية ومعيّرات الهواء على فتحات التهوية في المناطق الخارجية أو غير المدفأة أو المبردة (مثل مراوح العوادم ومداخل العلية) على توفير الطاقة. كما تزيد النوافذ والأبواب والأجهزة الموفرة للطاقة من كفاءة استخدام الطاقة.

يتم توفير الطاقة بطريقتين. الأولى، أن يكون المنزل مجهزًا للحفاظ على درجة حرارة مناسبة بداخله حسب الطقس، باستخدام أقل كمية ممكنة من الطاقة

. والمبنى الذي يفقد طاقة أقل هو مبنى يستهلك طاقة أقل. أما الثانية، فيجب أن تكون الأجهزة التي تدير المنزل - مثل أنظمة التدفئة والتبريد والإضاءة وأجهزة المطبخ وغيرها - موفرة للطاقة. عند تطبيق هاتين الوسيلتين لأقصى درجة بشكل عام، سيستهلك المنزل وقودًا أحفوريًا وكهرباء أقل، وبالتالي تقل انبعاثات CO2.

أقصر الطرق لتوفير الطاقة: هو البدء من الصفر، عن طريق بناء منزل جديد. حيث يمكن للمنزل الجديد أن يشتمل بسهولة على بعض تقنيات التدفئة والتبريد الكسولة، إلى جانب مواد البناء - القديمة والجديدة - والأجهزة التي تساعد على تقليل استهلاك الكهرباء والوقود الأحفوري. ويتطلب بناء منزل موفر للطاقة تخطيطًا دقيقًا ومفصلاً باستخدام ما يسمى "منهج المنزل المتكامل النظمي". ويعتمد هذا المنهج على التفاعل بين المنزل والبيئة والأشخاص المقيمين به، لتحديد أفضل الأنظمة لاستخدامها في التدفئة والتبريد والعزل والنوافذ والإضاءة والأجهزة والإلكترونيات والماء والتخلص من المخلفات.


معايير البناء لتوفير الطاقة

في جميع أنحاء العالم، قامت الدول والولايات والمدن بتطوير معايير بناء "صديقة للبيئة" بشكل تطوعي. ففي الولايات المتحدة، هناك برنامج تأهيل يسمى LEED (الريادة في تصميمات الطاقة والبيئة)، والذي تم وضعه بواسطة المجلس الأمريكي للأبنية الخضراء الذي لا يهدف للربح. ويقوم البرنامج بتقدير جميع نواحي التصميم والبناء والتشغيل، غالبًا للبناء واسع المدى، مثل المباني الحكومية والمدارس والمساحات التجارية. وقد تم اعتماد نظام LEED في العديد من الدول، منها الهند وإسرائيل وكندا. كما يوصي معهد المعايير والأبحاث الصناعية في ماليزيا بمعايير الأبنية الخضراء لتلك الدولة.

في الولايات المتحدة، قامت مدينة بولدر بكولورادو بتطوير نظام النقاط المفصل الخاص بها للمباني الموفرة للطاقة. حيث لن يتم اعتماد التصميمات المعمارية ما لم تحز على عدد محدد من النقاط، مقابل عناصر معينة مثل العزل والأسس الخرسانية مُسبقة الصب وزراعة أشجار التظليل والنوافذ الموفرة للطاقة. كما يتطلب برنامج بولدر أن يتم تفكيك المنازل بدلاً من هدمها وأن يتم إعادة تدوير 65% على الأقل من تلك المواد.%

هناك أيضًا برامج لتمييز الأجهزة والمنتجات الموفرة للطاقة. ففي الولايات المتحدة، قامت وكالة الحماية البيئية بوضع برنامج "Energy Star" في عام 1992 لهذا الغرض. ومؤخرًا، قامت الوكالة بتخصيص مباني Energy Star أيضًا. وهناك وكالات أخرى لا تهدف للربح تشجع النواحي المختلفة لتوفير الطاقة في جميع أرجاء العالم. ومن أمثلة ذلك "اتحاد توفير الطاقة"، الذي تأسس في الولايات المتحدة ولكنه يدعم البرامج لتوفير المزيد من الطاقة في جميع أنحاء العالم، في مناطق مثل الصين وشرق أوروبا.

عند استخدام معايير البناء المختلفة المتاحة والبحث عن الأجهزة الموفرة للطاقة لاستخدامها في المنزل، فإن الباني/المالك بذلك يمتلك التوجيهات اللازمة لمعرفة كيفية بناء منزل يستهلك طاقة أقل بداخله.

دعونا نُلق نظرة عن قرب على كيفية بناء منزل موفر للطاقة. ما هو نوع الجدران والسقف والعزل الذي يقوم بأفضل وظيفة في تقليل استهلاك الطاقة؟

ee new building1

الصورة © جون إدوارد ليندن، مصدر الصورة Moore Ruble Yudell Architects & Planners
تم بناء مبنى موقف السيارات بمركز سانتا مونيكا المدني، في سانتا مونيكا بكاليفورنيا، وفقًا لمعايير الريادة في تصميمات الطاقة والبيئة (LEED). فهو يعمل بالطاقة الشمسية، ويستخدم إضاءة الفلورسنت والمياه المنقاة في البناء ودورات المياه، وقد تم بناؤه جزئيًا باستخدام مواد مُعاد تدويرها.

ee new building2

مصدر الصورة وكالة الحماية البيئية الأمريكية، برنامج Energy Star
قامت بعض الدول بوضع برامج للإشارة إلى الأجهزة الموفرة للطاقة. وفي الولايات المتحدة، يمكن العثور على رمز Energy Star على مجموعة كبيرة من المنتجات، منها مواد البناء والأجهزة.

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banner195x129


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SB ad


Strict Standards: Only variables should be assigned by reference in /home/rewmag/public_html/ar/templates/sj_worldnews/includes/yt_template.class.php on line 402

ألبومات الصور


Strict Standards: Only variables should be assigned by reference in /home/rewmag/public_html/ar/modules/mod_ytc_k2slideshow/assets/yt_k2_slideshow.php on line 46

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قالت الحكومة المصرية إنها ستتمكن من سد العجز في توليد الطاقة من...

Strict Standards: Only variables should be assigned by reference in /home/rewmag/public_html/ar/templates/sj_worldnews/includes/yt_template.class.php on line 476

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Strict Standards: Only variables should be assigned by reference in /home/rewmag/public_html/ar/plugins/content/jw_allvideos/jw_allvideos.php on line 43

إبقي علي إتصال معنا


Strict Standards: Only variables should be assigned by reference in /home/rewmag/public_html/ar/templates/sj_worldnews/includes/yt_template.class.php on line 476

فاعليات


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أخبار عالمية


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